Smartmulti > Variable Volume HVAC Solutions
The SMI Electric Stand Alone Series of HVAC controllers are a set of analog variable air volume controllers, thermostat and motor assemblies intended for control of simple VAV or PRD systems. One single master unit is capable of driving 10 x slave diffuser/PRD units with or without electric reheat elements.
Simple VAV HVAC systems
The simplest VAV HVAC system incorporates one supply duct that, when in cooling mode, distributes supply air at a constant temperature of approximately 55 °F (13 °C). Because the supply air temperature is constant, the air flow rate must vary to meet the rising and falling heat gains or losses within the thermal zone served.
Even a simple VAV system has several advantages over a CAV system. One is more precise temperature control. To meet a space cooling load, a CAV unit operates the fan and compressor at full capacity until the temperature drops to a specified limit, and then the compressor turns off. This on/off cycling causes the temperature to fluctuate above and below the temperature setpoint. In a single-zone VAV unit, the fan speed varies depending on the actual space temperature and the temperature setpoint, while the compressor modulates the refrigerant flow to maintain a constant supply air temperature. The result is more precise space temperature control.
Another advantage is energy savings and reduced wear. VAV fan control, especially with modern electronic variable-speed drives, reduces the energy consumed by fans, which can be a substantial part of the total cooling energy requirements of a building. Modulating control of the compressor also reduces wear and delivers further energy savings.
A final advantage is increased dehumidification. Because VAV air flow is reduced under part-load conditions, air is exposed to cooling coils for a longer time. More moisture condenses on the coils, dehumidifying the air. Thus, although a constant-volume and a single-zone VAV unit maintain the same room temperature, the VAV unit provides more passive dehumidification and more comfortable space conditions.
Multiple-zone VAV HVAC systems
The air blower’s flow rate is variable. For a single VAV air handler that serves multiple thermal zones, the flow rate to each zone must be varied as well.
A VAV HVAC terminal unit, often called a VAV box, is the zone-level flow control device. It is basically a calibrated air damper with an automatic actuator. The VAV terminal unit is connected to either a local or a central control system. Historically, pneumaticcontrol was commonplace, but electronic direct digital control systems are popular especially for mid- to large-size applications. Hybrid control, for example having pneumatic actuators with digital data collection, is popular as well.
A common commercial application is shown in the above diagram. This VAV system consists of a VAV box, ductwork, and four air terminals.
VMAH Stand Alone Variable Volume Control Electronics – Ventline